Biology (B.A.)

The B.A. and the B.S. in biology can both provide students with the experience and knowledge necessary to have a successful career. A B.A. in biology requires 20 hours of approved hours in the Natural Sciences Division.The B.A. has a more flexible supporting area and is a particularly appealing option for students who would like to combine their biology degree with another area of emphasis such as math or physics.

Biology Core 12 hours
Biology Major (B.A., 30 hours plus a 20-hour supporting program)
BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry 4 hours
BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology 4 hours
BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution 4 hours
Biology Electives 16 hours
Must have two lab courses, with at least one from Area A and one from Area B. Remaining hours from any areas (A, B, C, D, E).  
Capstone 2 hours
BIO 4980A Senior Thesis and BIO 4980B Senior Thesis or
BIO 4990A Senior Research and BIO 4990B Senior Research
2 hours
Area A. Cellular, Developmental and Molecular Biology  
Biology Electives
BIO 3160 Medical Botany 3 hours
BIO 3160 Medical Botany and
BIO 3170 Medical Botany Lab (lab course)
4 hours
BIO 3440 Developmental Biology (lab course) 4 hours
BIO 3690 Microbiology (lab course) 4 hours
BIO 3800 Molecular Genetics 3 hours
BIO 3800 Molecular Genetics and
BIO 3850 Molecular Genetics Lab (lab course)
4 hours
BIO 4190 Histology (lab course) 4 hours
BIO 4750 Immunology 3 hours
BIO 4750 Immunology and BIO 4760 Laboratory in Immunology (lab course) 4 hours
Area B. Population and Ecological Biology  
BIO 3180 Plant Taxonomy (lab course) 4 hours
BIO 3220 Parasitology (lab course) 4 hours
BIO 3500 Conservation Biology (lab course) 4 hours
BIO 3530 Principles of Marine Biology and Oceanography 2 hours
BIO 3530 Principles of Marine Biology and Oceanography and
BIO 3540 Applied Marine Biology (lab course)
5 hours
BIO 3640 Animal Behavior 3 hours
BIO 3640 Animal Behavior and
BIO 3650 Laboratory in Animal Behavior (lab course)
4 hours
BIO 3720 Physiological Ecology (lab course) 4 hours
BIO 4210 Ecology (lab course) 4 hours
BIO 4480 Vertebrate Zoology (lab course) 4 hours
BIO 4610 Evolution 3 hours
Area C. Applied Biology  
BIO 3000 An Introduction to Biomedical Ethics 2 hours
BIO 3200 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology I (lab course) 4 hours
BIO 3210 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology II (lab course) 4 hours
BIO 3970 Biology Practicum 1-3 hours
BIO 3950/BIO 4950 Independent Study 1-2 hours
BIO 4700 Pathophysiology 3 hours
Area D. Global Experience in Biology  
BIO 3510 Tropical Biology of Costa Rica 3 hours
BIO 3520 Tropical Biology of Belize 3 hours
BIO 3530 Principles of Marine Biology and Oceanography 2 hours
BIO 3540 Applied Marine Biology 3 hours
Area E. Additional Courses  
BIO 3900/BIO 4900 Selected Topics 1-4 hours
BIO 3910 Directed Readings 1-2 hours

BIO 1080 Microbiology, BIO 1090 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I, and BIO 1100 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology II may not fulfill biology major requirements.

Required Supporting Program 20 hours

An approved supporting program of 20 hours is also required, normally comprised of courses from the Natural Sciences division. Required Supporting Program Courses:

 

 

BIO 1080 Microbiology (4 hours)

An introductory study of the structure, physiology, and pathogenicity of microorganisms, with an emphasis on bacteria and viruses that cause infectious diseases in humans.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Does not count toward a biology major or general education.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

BIO 1090 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I (3 hours)

An introductory study of cellular physiology and tissues along with a comprehensive study of the integumentary skeletal, muscular, nervous systems, and special senses.
Three lectures per week.
Does not count toward a biology major or general education.
Pre or Corequisite(s): BIO 1090L Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I Laboratory.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

BIO 1100 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology II (3 hours)

An introductory study of the blood, cardiovascular lymphatic, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems in addition to metabolism, fluid and electrolyte balance and acid-base balance of the body.
Three Lectures per week.
Does not count toward a biology major or general education.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1090 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I or permission of the instructor.
Pre or Corequisite(s): BIO 1100L Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab.

(Normally offered each spring semester.)

BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry (4 hours)

This course is designed for biology majors and replaces traditional introductory biology courses. The overarching goal is to introduce students to collegiate biology by teaching them how to carry out scientific research. Across all sections of this course, students will pose scientific questions, design and critique experiments, run those experiments, evaluate experimental outcomes, and communicate those outcomes. Within this framework of investigative inquiry, students will learn introductory content that will not only be meaningful for the current course, but will allow for a smoother transition to their sophomore year. Content areas include ecology, genetics, evolution, biodiversity, reproduction, development, and cellular/molecular mechanisms.
Course fluidly transitions between lecture and lab with an equivalency to 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours per week.  No P/F.
Pre or corequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I; or prerequisite of CHEM 1100 Prep Chemistry.
(Multiple sections normally offered each semester.)

Archway Curriculum: First-Year Curriculum: First-Year Writing
Archway Curriculum: Foundational Literacies: Scientific Investigations: Natural Science Laboratory
BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology (4 hours)

This course emphasizes molecular mechanisms associated with intracellular structures, metabolism, genetic information transfer, heredity, and evolution in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
Three lectures per week with one three-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I, CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I.
(Normally offered each semester.)

BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution (4 hours)

An introduction to the interaction of life with the environment at the molecular, organismal through ecosystem levels, highlighting the major factors influencing evolutionary change. Topics include genetic and phenotypic variation, natural selection, adaptation, speciation, symbiosis and populations dynamics especially in light of human interference, and ecosystem structure and function. Where possible, principles of evolution and ecology will be integrated.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week, including field, laboratory and greenhouse work.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I.
(Normally offered each semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Humans in the Natural Environment Thread
BIO 3000 An Introduction to Biomedical Ethics (2 hours)

An introduction to the ethical issues raised by modern biological and medical research and clinical medicine. Case studies and readings will be used to present the following ethical issues: environmental ethics; patients' rights and physicians' responsibilities; abortion, euthanasia, and definitions of death; allocation of medical resources; humans as experimental subjects; behavioral technologies; genetic testing, screening, and manipulation; and reproductive technologies. Student participation will involve class discussions and oral and written presentations.
One 2-hour lecture/discussion session per week. No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): Junior standing and at least 16 hours in biology coursework.

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Discourse Instructive
Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Human Health and Disease Thread
BIO 3160 Medical Botany (3 hours)

A systematic study of chemicals of plant and fungal origin that are used as poisons, hallucinogens, and pharmaceuticals in human health. This course will examine the compounds produced by plants that make medicinal effects possible and the biological mechanisms through which these effects take place in the human body. Ethnobotanical and herbal therapy perspectives in identifying new medicines will also be discussed.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Human Health and Disease Thread
Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Writing Instructive
BIO 3170 Medical Botany Lab (1 hour)

Laboratory practice in seeding, growing, active ingredient extraction, and utilization of medicinal plants. Emphasis is placed on the survey and identification of important medicinal herb taxa. Students will complete a semester- long project focused on growing a medicinal plant and then isolating and testing extractions for biologic activity.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of instructor.
Corequisite(s): BIO 3160 Medical Botany.

(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Human Health and Disease Thread
BIO 3180 Plant Taxonomy (4 hours)

A study of the identification, nomenclature, and classification of plants with emphasis on flowering plants.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

BIO 3200 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology I (4 hours)

This course is the first of a two-semester sequence anatomy and physiology for pre-health students that emphasizes the structure and function of the human body. It includes the study of homeostasis, tissues, and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems in addition to the special senses.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and sophomore standing.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

BIO 3210 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology II (4 hours)

Human Anatomy and Physiology is the study of structure and functions of the human body. This course will cover the topics of blood, the cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, renal and reproductive systems as well as nutrition and metabolism, acid-base, fluid, and electrolyte balance, and human development.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and sophomore standing.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

BIO 3220 Parasitology (4 hours)

A study of morphology, taxonomy, and life histories of the parasitic forms in the animal kingdom and of the diseases caused by them. Special attention is given to parasites of humans. No P/F.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

BIO 3440 Developmental Biology (4 hours)

The study of the entire sequence of developmental changes and processes in animals from fertilization to death. The course will emphasize the principles and major mechanisms regulating morphogenesis and cellular differentiation, particularly during embryonic development. In addition, methods used to study embryonic development will be explored. The laboratory introduces students to techniques and procedures for observing and manipulating animal embryos.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

BIO 3500 Conservation Biology (4 hours)

A course devoted to exploring issues related to biological diversity, including how biodiversity is measured, where it is found, its value, threats to it, and measure taken at the population and species level to conserve it. The course includes examining links between conservation and economics, law, and the social sciences. Case studies and discussions of local and global topics will encourage students to understand the varied threats to global biodiversity and the principles necessary to overcome them.
Three lectures/discussions per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and sophomore standing or instructor permission.
(Normally offered alternate springs.)
Note: Environmental Studies Minors are encouraged to register; please contact the instructor.

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Humans in the Natural Environment Thread
Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Discourse Instructive
BIO 3510 Tropical Biology of Costa Rica (3 hours)

A field ecology course taught in Costa Rica. The purpose of the course is to immerse students in the biology of the rainforest. This is accomplished by students designing and performing scientific research projects, guided hikes, and focusing on particular organismal groups at locations such as Las Cruces Biological Station, a mid-elevation rain forest site. This immersion is supplemented by side trips to interesting locations such as Poas volcano, and a marine location such as Quepos/Manuel Antonio National Park for marine biology exposure and the opportunity for snorkeling or SCUBA (for those that are certified). Trips to Costa Rica typically last 11-14 days, but students meet with instructor for several weeks prior to trip and several weeks after trip, culminated with a poster presentation of their research.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry or permission of the instructor.

(Normally offered every other Winter Term.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 3520 Tropical Biology of Belize (3 hours)

A field ecology course taught in the Central American nation of Belize. The course examines historical and current human land use patterns in Belize through visits to two Mayan ruins (i.e., Xunantunich and Caracol) that date from the Early Classic and Classic Mayan periods. Students spend several days in southern Belize living at the Las Cuevas Research Station located in the Chiquibul Forest Reserve Tropical rain forest (TRF) structure and ecology is presented using lecture, field trips, and a student research project. The remainder of the course is spent on an island situated on the Belize Barrier Reef. Reef ecology, mangrove ecology, and other elements of marine biology are covered during this portion of the course. Morning and evening lectures are used to introduce and review concepts highlighted during daily field trips. Field trips at this location involve snorkeling and SCUBA diving trips to sites near Southwater Caye.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered every other Winter Term.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 3530 Principles of Marine Biology and Oceanography (2 hours)

Course focusing on basic concepts in marine biology. Topics discussed in this course include basic oceanography, plankton ecology, nekton biology, meiofauna, marine communities, and the impact of humans on marine systems. Two lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered in the spring of even-numbered years.)

BIO 3540 Applied Marine Biology (3 hours)

A field marine biology course taught at a remote location in the Americas. The course is a continuation of the concepts presented in BIO 3530 Principles of Marine Biology and Oceanography usually by focusing on a tropical coral reef ecosystem. Students gain an understanding of how to sample, monitor, and assess reef ecosystem health with particular attention paid to plankton biology. Mangrove biology and ecology are also covered during the course. Students are required to complete an independent research project of their design and choosing while in the field.
Prerequisite(s): PADI or SSI Open Water Diver SCUBA certification and BIO 3530 Principles of Marine Biology and Oceanography (or permission of the instructor).
(Normally offered in summer of even-numbered years.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 3640 Animal Behavior (3 hours)

The study of animal behavior from both the ethological and behavioral ecological perspectives. Broad topic areas include behavioral mechanisms, genetics of behavior, behavioral evolution, and behavioral adaptation.
Concurrent enrollment in BIO 3650 Laboratory in Animal Behavior is encouraged.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and a minimum of sophomore standing.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Discourse Instructive
BIO 3650 Laboratory in Animal Behavior (1 hour)

An introduction to hands-on behavioral experiments and the methodology for studying animal behavior in the field and in the laboratory.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Corequisite(s): BIO 3640 Animal Behavior.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

BIO 3690 Microbiology (4 hours)

A study of the classification, morphology, and physiology of microorganisms with special emphasis on bacteria and viruses.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and CHEM 2110 Organic Chemistry II: Synthesis and Mechanisms.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

BIO 3720 Physiological Ecology (4 hours)

This is a course about animal and plant function - about "how organisms work". It is a physiology course taught from a somewhat ecological and evolutionary perspective. The course will address physiological topics from the following perspectives: comparative, ecological, environmental, evolutionary, integrative, and organismal. It will to some extent address molecular and cellular mechanisms, but at the same time it will emphasize the organismal, ecological, and evolutionary significance of physiological function. The course will take a holistic view of physiological mechanisms and emphasize organismal interactions with the environment (ecology) and their evolutionary significance. This course will combine information from physiology with that of physical and chemical processes with structure in order to understand how animals evolved their functional characteristics and how they stay alive in the face of constantly changing internal and external environments.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

BIO 3800 Molecular Genetics (3 hours)

A study of the systems, mechanisms, and methods of molecular genetics with a particular emphasis on the analysis of the genetic material--mutagenesis, replication, regulation, transcription, and translation--and its protein products and their biological function. Recombinant DNA/genetic engineering and other modern technologies will be discussed.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I, and CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I.
(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Discourse Instructive
BIO 3850 Molecular Genetics Lab (1 hour)

A laboratory course that focuses on modern methods and instrumentation used in molecular genetics- based research. Students will gain experience through extensive research projects involving recombinant DNA technology, gene expression, DNA sequencing and bioinformatics/genomics.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I.
Corequisite(s): BIO 3800 Molecular Genetics.

(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

BIO 3900 Selected Topics (1-4 hours)

A course designed to treat subject matter not covered in other departmental courses or to provide advanced study of subject matter introduced in other courses. The title, content, and credit hours will be determined by current mutual interests of faculty and students.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution; additional requirements may be determined by the instructor.

BIO 3910 Directed Readings (1-2 hours)

An opportunity for students, under the supervision of a faculty member, to pursue scientific literature not covered in other coursework. No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): Major or minor in biology and permission of a faculty member in the Department of Biology.
(Normally offered each semester.)

BIO 3950 Independent Study (1-4 hours)

Individual laboratory projects for qualified biology majors. Independent study may not duplicate courses described in the catalog. No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department chair.

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 3970 Biology Practicum (2-3 hours)

A supervised field experience enabling observation and participation in a clinical or research setting relating to biology. Requirements include: submission of a learning plan, journal, reflection paper, and oral presentation. Thirty hours of field experience per credit hour. May be taken for two or three credit hours.
Pass/Fail only.
Prerequisite(s): Major or minor in biology, approval of the department chair, and approval of the coordinating clinic or laboratory.

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 4190 Histology (4 hours)

A study of the microscopic anatomy and functions of the mammalian tissues and organs with modern concepts of histophysiology and histogenesis. No P/F.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

BIO 4210 Ecology (4 hours)

A study of the reciprocal relationships of living organisms and their environments with respect to individuals, populations, and communities.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week, including field and greenhouse work.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Writing Instructive
BIO 4480 Vertebrate Zoology (4 hours)

A course for biology majors that emphasizes the natural history, evolution, ecology, morphology, anatomy, physiology, and diversity of both extant and extinct vertebrate groups. Emphasis will be on species found in Nebraska. Students will learn to identify specimens, dissect selected specimens, and investigate current topics in vertebrate zoology through oral presentations and at least one review paper.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Speaking Instructive
BIO 4610 Evolution (3 hours)

An introduction to the principle and mechanisms of evolution.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Discourse Instructive
BIO 4700 Pathophysiology (3 hours)

A survey of the mechanisms of diseases and fundamental disease processes of each organ system. Special topics related to the study of diseases will be assigned.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1090 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I and BIO 1100 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology II, or BIO 3200 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology I and BIO 3210 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology II, or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered each semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Human Health and Disease Thread
BIO 4750 Immunology (3 hours)

A study of the mammalian Immune system. Topics will include innate immunity, acquired (antibody and cell-mediated) immunity, common laboratory techniques, and medical immunology. No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry and BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology.
Pre or corequisite(s): BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

(Normally offered each spring semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Human Health and Disease Thread
BIO 4760 Laboratory in Immunology (1 hour)

An introduction to common immunological procedures used in clinical and research settings, such as ELISA, western blotting, flow cytometry, and cell proliferation assays.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry and BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology.
Pre or corequisite(s): BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and BIO 4750 Immunology are recommended but not required.

(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

BIO 4900 Selected Topics (1-4 hours)

A topical course designed to investigate relevant subject matter not included in any standard courses. The title and the content will be determined by current mutual interests of students and faculty. This course may be offered to meet a requirement for a major only by approval of the department chair.

BIO 4950 Independent Study (1-4 hours)

This is a research course. The student initially meets with the department chair to select a study topic and review research methods. At this time the student will be assigned a faculty resource person to guide his or her work and assist in an advisory capacity. A copy of the student's work is filed in the archives for the department. Independent study may not duplicate courses described in the catalog.
Prerequisite(s): Senior standing or permission of the department chair.

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 4980A Senior Thesis (1 hour)

Biology majors will perform individual library thesis projects to meet the senior comprehensive requirement. A research report in scientific format and a formal presentation of the thesis is required. Biology majors will begin the process by asking a scientific question, gathering peer-reviewed published evidence, analyzing the evidence, supporting/rejecting their hypothesis and writing a formal thesis paper. The first draft of the thesis paper is required at the completion of the course. In addition, Biology majors will orally present various components of their thesis during the course.  No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department chair or instructor.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

BIO 4980B Senior Thesis (1 hour)

Biology majors will perform individual library thesis projects to meet the senior comprehensive requirement. A research report in scientific format and a formal presentation of the thesis is required. Biology majors will complete the final version of their thesis paper and give a formal presentation of their thesis work at the Nebraska Wesleyan University Research Symposium or at a biology department seminar, or at the discretion of the instructor. No P/F.
Completion of both BIO 4980A and BIO 4980B will allow students to earn both Writing Instructive and Speaking Instructive credit. 
Prerequisite: Approval of the department chair or instructor, and completion of BIO 4980A Senior Thesis (or in some instances, concurrent enrollment in BIO 4980A).
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Writing Instructive
Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Speaking Instructive
BIO 4990A Senior Research (1 hour)

Biology majors will perform individual laboratory or field research projects to meet the senior comprehensive requirement.  A research report in scientific format and a formal presentation of the research is required.  Biology majors will begin the process of writing the scientific paper under the supervision of a biology faculty mentor and will complete the first draft of the research paper by the end of the course.  In addition to writing the research paper, biology majors will orally present different components of their research project. No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department chair or instructor.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

BIO 4990B Senior Research (1 hour)

Biology majors will perform individual laboratory or field research projects to meet the senior comprehensive requirement. A research report in scientific format and a formal presentation of the research is required. Biology majors will complete the final version of their research paper and give a formal presentation of their research at the Nebraska Academy of Sciences Annual conference, another scientific meeting, or at the discretion of the instructor. No P/F.
Completion of both BIO 4990A and BIO 4990B will allow students to earn both Writing Instructive and Speaking Instructive credit.
Prerequisite: Approval of the department chair or instructor, and completion of BIO 4990A Senior Research (or in some instances, concurrent enrollment in BIO 4990A).
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Writing Instructive
Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Speaking Instructive
CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I (3 hours)

A study of fundamental principles of chemistry including structures of atoms and molecules, periodicity, stoichiometry, reactions, solutions, gases, and thermochemistry.
Three classes per week.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Foundational Literacies: Scientific Investigations: Natural Science Laboratory
CHEM 1110L Chemical Principles I Laboratory (1 hour)

Laboratory supporting CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I.
One three-hour lab per week.
Pre or corequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Foundational Literacies: Scientific Investigations: Natural Science Laboratory
CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I (3 hours)

A survey of the structure and reactions of carbon-containing molecules.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and CHEM 1110L Chemical Principles I Laboratory with a grade of "C-" or better.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

CHEM 2100L Organic Chemistry I Laboratory (1 hour)

A laboratory supporting CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I.
One 3-hour lab per week.
One 1-hour pre-lab lecture per week.
Corequisite(s): CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

BIO 1080 Microbiology (4 hours)

An introductory study of the structure, physiology, and pathogenicity of microorganisms, with an emphasis on bacteria and viruses that cause infectious diseases in humans.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Does not count toward a biology major or general education.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

BIO 1090 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I (3 hours)

An introductory study of cellular physiology and tissues along with a comprehensive study of the integumentary skeletal, muscular, nervous systems, and special senses.
Three lectures per week.
Does not count toward a biology major or general education.
Pre or Corequisite(s): BIO 1090L Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I Laboratory.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

BIO 1100 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology II (3 hours)

An introductory study of the blood, cardiovascular lymphatic, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems in addition to metabolism, fluid and electrolyte balance and acid-base balance of the body.
Three Lectures per week.
Does not count toward a biology major or general education.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1090 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I or permission of the instructor.
Pre or Corequisite(s): BIO 1100L Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab.

(Normally offered each spring semester.)

BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry (4 hours)

This course is designed for biology majors and replaces traditional introductory biology courses. The overarching goal is to introduce students to collegiate biology by teaching them how to carry out scientific research. Across all sections of this course, students will pose scientific questions, design and critique experiments, run those experiments, evaluate experimental outcomes, and communicate those outcomes. Within this framework of investigative inquiry, students will learn introductory content that will not only be meaningful for the current course, but will allow for a smoother transition to their sophomore year. Content areas include ecology, genetics, evolution, biodiversity, reproduction, development, and cellular/molecular mechanisms.
Course fluidly transitions between lecture and lab with an equivalency to 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours per week.  No P/F.
Pre or corequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I; or prerequisite of CHEM 1100 Prep Chemistry.
(Multiple sections normally offered each semester.)

Archway Curriculum: First-Year Curriculum: First-Year Writing
Archway Curriculum: Foundational Literacies: Scientific Investigations: Natural Science Laboratory
BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology (4 hours)

This course emphasizes molecular mechanisms associated with intracellular structures, metabolism, genetic information transfer, heredity, and evolution in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
Three lectures per week with one three-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I, CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I.
(Normally offered each semester.)

BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution (4 hours)

An introduction to the interaction of life with the environment at the molecular, organismal through ecosystem levels, highlighting the major factors influencing evolutionary change. Topics include genetic and phenotypic variation, natural selection, adaptation, speciation, symbiosis and populations dynamics especially in light of human interference, and ecosystem structure and function. Where possible, principles of evolution and ecology will be integrated.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week, including field, laboratory and greenhouse work.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I.
(Normally offered each semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Humans in the Natural Environment Thread
BIO 3000 An Introduction to Biomedical Ethics (2 hours)

An introduction to the ethical issues raised by modern biological and medical research and clinical medicine. Case studies and readings will be used to present the following ethical issues: environmental ethics; patients' rights and physicians' responsibilities; abortion, euthanasia, and definitions of death; allocation of medical resources; humans as experimental subjects; behavioral technologies; genetic testing, screening, and manipulation; and reproductive technologies. Student participation will involve class discussions and oral and written presentations.
One 2-hour lecture/discussion session per week. No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): Junior standing and at least 16 hours in biology coursework.

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Discourse Instructive
Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Human Health and Disease Thread
BIO 3160 Medical Botany (3 hours)

A systematic study of chemicals of plant and fungal origin that are used as poisons, hallucinogens, and pharmaceuticals in human health. This course will examine the compounds produced by plants that make medicinal effects possible and the biological mechanisms through which these effects take place in the human body. Ethnobotanical and herbal therapy perspectives in identifying new medicines will also be discussed.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Human Health and Disease Thread
Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Writing Instructive
BIO 3170 Medical Botany Lab (1 hour)

Laboratory practice in seeding, growing, active ingredient extraction, and utilization of medicinal plants. Emphasis is placed on the survey and identification of important medicinal herb taxa. Students will complete a semester- long project focused on growing a medicinal plant and then isolating and testing extractions for biologic activity.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of instructor.
Corequisite(s): BIO 3160 Medical Botany.

(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Human Health and Disease Thread
BIO 3180 Plant Taxonomy (4 hours)

A study of the identification, nomenclature, and classification of plants with emphasis on flowering plants.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

BIO 3200 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology I (4 hours)

This course is the first of a two-semester sequence anatomy and physiology for pre-health students that emphasizes the structure and function of the human body. It includes the study of homeostasis, tissues, and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems in addition to the special senses.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and sophomore standing.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

BIO 3210 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology II (4 hours)

Human Anatomy and Physiology is the study of structure and functions of the human body. This course will cover the topics of blood, the cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, renal and reproductive systems as well as nutrition and metabolism, acid-base, fluid, and electrolyte balance, and human development.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and sophomore standing.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

BIO 3220 Parasitology (4 hours)

A study of morphology, taxonomy, and life histories of the parasitic forms in the animal kingdom and of the diseases caused by them. Special attention is given to parasites of humans. No P/F.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

BIO 3440 Developmental Biology (4 hours)

The study of the entire sequence of developmental changes and processes in animals from fertilization to death. The course will emphasize the principles and major mechanisms regulating morphogenesis and cellular differentiation, particularly during embryonic development. In addition, methods used to study embryonic development will be explored. The laboratory introduces students to techniques and procedures for observing and manipulating animal embryos.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

BIO 3500 Conservation Biology (4 hours)

A course devoted to exploring issues related to biological diversity, including how biodiversity is measured, where it is found, its value, threats to it, and measure taken at the population and species level to conserve it. The course includes examining links between conservation and economics, law, and the social sciences. Case studies and discussions of local and global topics will encourage students to understand the varied threats to global biodiversity and the principles necessary to overcome them.
Three lectures/discussions per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and sophomore standing or instructor permission.
(Normally offered alternate springs.)
Note: Environmental Studies Minors are encouraged to register; please contact the instructor.

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Humans in the Natural Environment Thread
Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Discourse Instructive
BIO 3510 Tropical Biology of Costa Rica (3 hours)

A field ecology course taught in Costa Rica. The purpose of the course is to immerse students in the biology of the rainforest. This is accomplished by students designing and performing scientific research projects, guided hikes, and focusing on particular organismal groups at locations such as Las Cruces Biological Station, a mid-elevation rain forest site. This immersion is supplemented by side trips to interesting locations such as Poas volcano, and a marine location such as Quepos/Manuel Antonio National Park for marine biology exposure and the opportunity for snorkeling or SCUBA (for those that are certified). Trips to Costa Rica typically last 11-14 days, but students meet with instructor for several weeks prior to trip and several weeks after trip, culminated with a poster presentation of their research.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry or permission of the instructor.

(Normally offered every other Winter Term.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 3520 Tropical Biology of Belize (3 hours)

A field ecology course taught in the Central American nation of Belize. The course examines historical and current human land use patterns in Belize through visits to two Mayan ruins (i.e., Xunantunich and Caracol) that date from the Early Classic and Classic Mayan periods. Students spend several days in southern Belize living at the Las Cuevas Research Station located in the Chiquibul Forest Reserve Tropical rain forest (TRF) structure and ecology is presented using lecture, field trips, and a student research project. The remainder of the course is spent on an island situated on the Belize Barrier Reef. Reef ecology, mangrove ecology, and other elements of marine biology are covered during this portion of the course. Morning and evening lectures are used to introduce and review concepts highlighted during daily field trips. Field trips at this location involve snorkeling and SCUBA diving trips to sites near Southwater Caye.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered every other Winter Term.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 3530 Principles of Marine Biology and Oceanography (2 hours)

Course focusing on basic concepts in marine biology. Topics discussed in this course include basic oceanography, plankton ecology, nekton biology, meiofauna, marine communities, and the impact of humans on marine systems. Two lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered in the spring of even-numbered years.)

BIO 3540 Applied Marine Biology (3 hours)

A field marine biology course taught at a remote location in the Americas. The course is a continuation of the concepts presented in BIO 3530 Principles of Marine Biology and Oceanography usually by focusing on a tropical coral reef ecosystem. Students gain an understanding of how to sample, monitor, and assess reef ecosystem health with particular attention paid to plankton biology. Mangrove biology and ecology are also covered during the course. Students are required to complete an independent research project of their design and choosing while in the field.
Prerequisite(s): PADI or SSI Open Water Diver SCUBA certification and BIO 3530 Principles of Marine Biology and Oceanography (or permission of the instructor).
(Normally offered in summer of even-numbered years.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 3640 Animal Behavior (3 hours)

The study of animal behavior from both the ethological and behavioral ecological perspectives. Broad topic areas include behavioral mechanisms, genetics of behavior, behavioral evolution, and behavioral adaptation.
Concurrent enrollment in BIO 3650 Laboratory in Animal Behavior is encouraged.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and a minimum of sophomore standing.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Discourse Instructive
BIO 3650 Laboratory in Animal Behavior (1 hour)

An introduction to hands-on behavioral experiments and the methodology for studying animal behavior in the field and in the laboratory.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Corequisite(s): BIO 3640 Animal Behavior.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

BIO 3690 Microbiology (4 hours)

A study of the classification, morphology, and physiology of microorganisms with special emphasis on bacteria and viruses.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and CHEM 2110 Organic Chemistry II: Synthesis and Mechanisms.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

BIO 3720 Physiological Ecology (4 hours)

This is a course about animal and plant function - about "how organisms work". It is a physiology course taught from a somewhat ecological and evolutionary perspective. The course will address physiological topics from the following perspectives: comparative, ecological, environmental, evolutionary, integrative, and organismal. It will to some extent address molecular and cellular mechanisms, but at the same time it will emphasize the organismal, ecological, and evolutionary significance of physiological function. The course will take a holistic view of physiological mechanisms and emphasize organismal interactions with the environment (ecology) and their evolutionary significance. This course will combine information from physiology with that of physical and chemical processes with structure in order to understand how animals evolved their functional characteristics and how they stay alive in the face of constantly changing internal and external environments.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

BIO 3800 Molecular Genetics (3 hours)

A study of the systems, mechanisms, and methods of molecular genetics with a particular emphasis on the analysis of the genetic material--mutagenesis, replication, regulation, transcription, and translation--and its protein products and their biological function. Recombinant DNA/genetic engineering and other modern technologies will be discussed.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I, and CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I.
(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Discourse Instructive
BIO 3850 Molecular Genetics Lab (1 hour)

A laboratory course that focuses on modern methods and instrumentation used in molecular genetics- based research. Students will gain experience through extensive research projects involving recombinant DNA technology, gene expression, DNA sequencing and bioinformatics/genomics.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I.
Corequisite(s): BIO 3800 Molecular Genetics.

(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

BIO 3900 Selected Topics (1-4 hours)

A course designed to treat subject matter not covered in other departmental courses or to provide advanced study of subject matter introduced in other courses. The title, content, and credit hours will be determined by current mutual interests of faculty and students.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution; additional requirements may be determined by the instructor.

BIO 3910 Directed Readings (1-2 hours)

An opportunity for students, under the supervision of a faculty member, to pursue scientific literature not covered in other coursework. No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): Major or minor in biology and permission of a faculty member in the Department of Biology.
(Normally offered each semester.)

BIO 3950 Independent Study (1-4 hours)

Individual laboratory projects for qualified biology majors. Independent study may not duplicate courses described in the catalog. No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department chair.

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 3970 Biology Practicum (2-3 hours)

A supervised field experience enabling observation and participation in a clinical or research setting relating to biology. Requirements include: submission of a learning plan, journal, reflection paper, and oral presentation. Thirty hours of field experience per credit hour. May be taken for two or three credit hours.
Pass/Fail only.
Prerequisite(s): Major or minor in biology, approval of the department chair, and approval of the coordinating clinic or laboratory.

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 4190 Histology (4 hours)

A study of the microscopic anatomy and functions of the mammalian tissues and organs with modern concepts of histophysiology and histogenesis. No P/F.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

BIO 4210 Ecology (4 hours)

A study of the reciprocal relationships of living organisms and their environments with respect to individuals, populations, and communities.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week, including field and greenhouse work.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Writing Instructive
BIO 4480 Vertebrate Zoology (4 hours)

A course for biology majors that emphasizes the natural history, evolution, ecology, morphology, anatomy, physiology, and diversity of both extant and extinct vertebrate groups. Emphasis will be on species found in Nebraska. Students will learn to identify specimens, dissect selected specimens, and investigate current topics in vertebrate zoology through oral presentations and at least one review paper.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Speaking Instructive
BIO 4610 Evolution (3 hours)

An introduction to the principle and mechanisms of evolution.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Discourse Instructive
BIO 4700 Pathophysiology (3 hours)

A survey of the mechanisms of diseases and fundamental disease processes of each organ system. Special topics related to the study of diseases will be assigned.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1090 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I and BIO 1100 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology II, or BIO 3200 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology I and BIO 3210 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology II, or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered each semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Human Health and Disease Thread
BIO 4750 Immunology (3 hours)

A study of the mammalian Immune system. Topics will include innate immunity, acquired (antibody and cell-mediated) immunity, common laboratory techniques, and medical immunology. No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry and BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology.
Pre or corequisite(s): BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

(Normally offered each spring semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Integrative Core: Human Health and Disease Thread
BIO 4760 Laboratory in Immunology (1 hour)

An introduction to common immunological procedures used in clinical and research settings, such as ELISA, western blotting, flow cytometry, and cell proliferation assays.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400FYW Introduction to Biological Inquiry and BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology.
Pre or corequisite(s): BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and BIO 4750 Immunology are recommended but not required.

(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

BIO 4900 Selected Topics (1-4 hours)

A topical course designed to investigate relevant subject matter not included in any standard courses. The title and the content will be determined by current mutual interests of students and faculty. This course may be offered to meet a requirement for a major only by approval of the department chair.

BIO 4950 Independent Study (1-4 hours)

This is a research course. The student initially meets with the department chair to select a study topic and review research methods. At this time the student will be assigned a faculty resource person to guide his or her work and assist in an advisory capacity. A copy of the student's work is filed in the archives for the department. Independent study may not duplicate courses described in the catalog.
Prerequisite(s): Senior standing or permission of the department chair.

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Experiential Learning: Intensive
BIO 4980A Senior Thesis (1 hour)

Biology majors will perform individual library thesis projects to meet the senior comprehensive requirement. A research report in scientific format and a formal presentation of the thesis is required. Biology majors will begin the process by asking a scientific question, gathering peer-reviewed published evidence, analyzing the evidence, supporting/rejecting their hypothesis and writing a formal thesis paper. The first draft of the thesis paper is required at the completion of the course. In addition, Biology majors will orally present various components of their thesis during the course.  No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department chair or instructor.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

BIO 4980B Senior Thesis (1 hour)

Biology majors will perform individual library thesis projects to meet the senior comprehensive requirement. A research report in scientific format and a formal presentation of the thesis is required. Biology majors will complete the final version of their thesis paper and give a formal presentation of their thesis work at the Nebraska Wesleyan University Research Symposium or at a biology department seminar, or at the discretion of the instructor. No P/F.
Completion of both BIO 4980A and BIO 4980B will allow students to earn both Writing Instructive and Speaking Instructive credit. 
Prerequisite: Approval of the department chair or instructor, and completion of BIO 4980A Senior Thesis (or in some instances, concurrent enrollment in BIO 4980A).
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Writing Instructive
Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Speaking Instructive
BIO 4990A Senior Research (1 hour)

Biology majors will perform individual laboratory or field research projects to meet the senior comprehensive requirement.  A research report in scientific format and a formal presentation of the research is required.  Biology majors will begin the process of writing the scientific paper under the supervision of a biology faculty mentor and will complete the first draft of the research paper by the end of the course.  In addition to writing the research paper, biology majors will orally present different components of their research project. No P/F.
Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department chair or instructor.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

BIO 4990B Senior Research (1 hour)

Biology majors will perform individual laboratory or field research projects to meet the senior comprehensive requirement. A research report in scientific format and a formal presentation of the research is required. Biology majors will complete the final version of their research paper and give a formal presentation of their research at the Nebraska Academy of Sciences Annual conference, another scientific meeting, or at the discretion of the instructor. No P/F.
Completion of both BIO 4990A and BIO 4990B will allow students to earn both Writing Instructive and Speaking Instructive credit.
Prerequisite: Approval of the department chair or instructor, and completion of BIO 4990A Senior Research (or in some instances, concurrent enrollment in BIO 4990A).
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Writing Instructive
Archway Curriculum: Essential Connections: Speaking Instructive
CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I (3 hours)

A study of fundamental principles of chemistry including structures of atoms and molecules, periodicity, stoichiometry, reactions, solutions, gases, and thermochemistry.
Three classes per week.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Foundational Literacies: Scientific Investigations: Natural Science Laboratory
CHEM 1110L Chemical Principles I Laboratory (1 hour)

Laboratory supporting CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I.
One three-hour lab per week.
Pre or corequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

Archway Curriculum: Foundational Literacies: Scientific Investigations: Natural Science Laboratory
CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I (3 hours)

A survey of the structure and reactions of carbon-containing molecules.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and CHEM 1110L Chemical Principles I Laboratory with a grade of "C-" or better.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

CHEM 2100L Organic Chemistry I Laboratory (1 hour)

A laboratory supporting CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I.
One 3-hour lab per week.
One 1-hour pre-lab lecture per week.
Corequisite(s): CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)